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Науково-практична Інтернет-конференція 08.12.2016 - СЕКЦІЯ №5
Corruption is a main process with significant negative issues for the EU and its Member States. This thesis uses a mix of methodologies to analyze the costs of corruption in the EU in economic, social and political life. The findings, based on new analysis, suggest that corruption costs the EU between €179bn and €990bn in GDP terms on an annual basis.
Current anti-corruption measures relevant to Member States and the EU as a whole are described and their effectiveness in reducing the levels of, and opportunities for, corruption are assessed. Eight potential areas for EU action are identified that might address the barriers to the effectiveness of current measures. The costs of non-Europe are calculated in relation to two of these, as well as in relation to the implementation of recently created EU laws.
Corruption – definition is, abuse of power for private gain, can take many forms, including paying bribes or exercising power so as to give privileged access to public services, goods or contracts. Corruption has been shown to undermine rule of law, lead to the inefficient delivery of public services and destroy the institutions and foundations of democracy. Corruption has a measurable impact on productivity and economic prosperity [1, p. 10-15]. 
This report looks at the ‘cost of non-Europe’ in relation to corruption. Cost of non-Europe reports are intended to study opportunities for gains, or the realization of a public good, through common action at the EU level, by attempting to identify areas that might have large expected benefits as a result of deeper EU integration or coordination. The objectives of the study are to:
1. Quantify the economic, social and political costs of corruption in the European Union [3]. 
2. Investigate gaps and barriers in the existing regulatory framework that hinder the effectiveness of measures to combat corruption in the EU.
3. Identify potential for action at EU level that might add value and address the challenges identified.
According Cecilia Malmstroem true cost of corruption was probably much higher than 120bn. Three-quarters of Europeans surveyed for the Commission study said that corruption was widespread, and more than half said the level had increased.
«The extent of the problem in Europe is breathtaking, although Sweden is among the countries with the least problems,» MsMalmstroem wrote in Sweden’s Goeteborgs-Posten daily. The cost to the EU economy is equivalent to the bloc’s annual budget. For the report the Commission studied corruption in all 28 EU member states. The Commission says it is the first time it has done such a survey.
Bribery widespread
National governments, rather than EU institutions, are chiefly responsible for fighting corruption in the EU. But MsMalmstroem said national governments and the European Parliament had asked the Commission to carry out the EU-wide study. The Commission drafts EU laws and enforces compliance with EU treaties [4]. 
In the UK only five people out of 1,115 – less than 1% – said they had been expected to pay a bribe. It was «the best result in all Europe», the report said. But 64% of British respondents said they believed corruption to be widespread in the UK, while the EU average was 74% on that question. In some countries there was a relatively high number reporting personal experience of bribery.
In Croatia, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania and Greece, between 6% and 29% of respondents said they had been asked for a bribe, or had been expected to pay one, in the past 12 months.
There were also high levels of bribery in Poland (15%), Slovakia (14%) and Hungary (13%), where the most prevalent instances were in healthcare. This report has not been without controversy. Its release was delayed for months, and some countries were critical of the European Commission for interfering in areas which they believed were none of its business. Originally, the report was also supposed to have included a chapter assessing corruption within EU institutions as well as within member states. But that idea was dropped. Nevertheless the figures revealed will certainly raise some eyebrows. The commission's estimate that corruption is costing the EU economy about 120 bn euros - the size of the EU's annual budget – could well is a conservative one. Other experts believe the real figure is probably higher.
One thing is clear though – a continent that is trying to put years of economic crisis behind it needs to do a better job in combating corruption.
The EU has an anti-fraud agency, Olaf, which focuses on fraud and corruption affecting the EU budget, but it has limited resources. In 2011 its budget was just 23.5m euros.
The EU study includes two major opinion polls by Eurobarometer, the Commission’s polling service. Four out of 10 of the businesses surveyed described corruption as an obstacle to doing business in Europe.
SWEDEN MODEL:
Sweden «is undoubtedly one of the countries with the least problems with corruption, and other EU countries should learn from Sweden's solutions for dealing with the problem», MsMalmstroem said, pointing to the role of laws on transparency and openness.
PROBLEM:
Corruption in the 28 EU member states undermines citizens’ fundamental rights, good governance and the rule of law. Corruption occurs in old and new EU Member States alike. Research shows that the trust of EU citizens in Member States and the EU to fight corruption is very low.
SOLUTION:
The EU must do more to counteract corruption with a comprehensive anti-corruption policy. The prevention of and fight against corruption should remain a priority on the EU’s political agenda. Leaders and decision-makers at the EU- and Member State level must take a clear and public stance against corruption, while adequate EU legislation, mechanisms and standards against corruption are needed to tackle the issue at its roots.
 
References:
1. Ina Kubbe, Corruption in Europe, 2015. – p. 220.
2. D Della Porta, Y Mény – 1997, Democracy and Corruption in Europe.
3. Independent Digital News & Media URL: http://www.independent.co.uk/
4. The BBC URL: http://www.bbc.com/
5. The disput URL: http://www.disput.az/ {jcomments lock}
 
 

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