... Заможні ті, хто вміє обмежувати бажання своїми можливостями (Гібер) ...

Головне меню

Науково-практична Інтернет-конференція 08.12.2016 - СЕКЦІЯ №5
Today Ukraine has got to the list of countries with unstable social and economic situation. This is primarily due to the conduct of the anti-terrorist operation in the east of the country, the use of heavy weapons by combatants in the area of combat operations and a strong possibility of terrorist attacks throughout the country.
The tragedy of the Donbas led to the global economic crisis in Ukraine. Its solution requires huge amounts of funding, which is tragically lacking in the state budget nowadays. First of all the funds are necessary for the maintenance and upgrading of the army, social support of the country population, restoration of infrastructure of areas affected by the war, help to displaced people throughout the country. In particular, only the very forced migration of the Donbas population is impossible for the domestic economy.
In the absence of effective control on the part of the law enforcement bodies, which in terms of reforms have lost their effectiveness, the problem of saturation of Ukraine with illegal weapons has become rampant. With the direct vicinity of areas outside the control of Ukraine, this causes a high level of threat of terrorist attacks, manifestations of banditry, the spread of illegal behavior, even in areas located far away from the temporarily occupied territories.
The criminal consequences of the war in Donbas have spread far beyond the destroyed region and caused many losses in all economic sectors and law enforcement sectors.
In global terms, the tourism industry suffers the largest economic losses from terrorism. It appeared to be the most vulnerable area for terrorist threats, as well as the most attractive to terrorists.
Since the problem of terrorism is not a phenomenon inherent in some particular country or group of countries, but a global thing around the world, at the present stage of social development, the efficiency of the tourism industry will depend on how individual states and international organizations will be able to combine their efforts to counter terrorism.
Safety of tourist travel has always been one of the most important conditions of their organization and implementation. In periods of increased risk, trips intensity sharply decreased and vice versa – safe conditions for journeys stimulated their development. And now the issues of travel security are the focus of participants of the international tourist cooperation [1].
With globalization of the travel geography, the need for implementation of new systems of security measures for tourists increased, as any tourist traveling can be a very real danger to travelers. First of all, the above relates to tourist trips to countries with difficult social situation, political problems, where armed conflicts and terrorist acts, which could pose a threat to life and health tourists, take place. That is why one of the factors when deciding on the choice of a destination of travel and recreation should be an analysis of the crime situation in a particular state and measures taken at the national level to prevent terrorist threats and to guarantee the safety of tourists. Thus, the safety of tourists needs strengthening of the state’s role in improving the system of security measures for tourists.
Due to the fact that tourism is a set of activities implemented by a tourist outside his or her usual environment for the purpose of entertainment, business etc. (Domingos, 1990), it is necessary to take into account various aspects that directly or indirectly affect the tourist experience. Thus, a crime is a major concern in the aspect of the safety of tourist destinations, with not only a crime aimed directly against tourists, but the crime in general, as it may influence the decision about the destination of travel and demand. According to Tarlow and Muehsam (1996), there are two categories of crimes aimed directly against tourists: 1) Planned crimes, for example, such as terrorism; 2) Crimes committed in the presence of such a possibility, sometimes using violence against an unknown victim, and where the aggressor gets an economic, psychological or sexual benefit in a certain form [2].
A necessary condition for the functioning of international tourism is the availability of appropriate legal framework that can ensure adequate security of tourism in general and individually – the safety of life and health of tourists. The abovementioned is the policy priority of any state in this area and one of the policies in the field of national security. Compliance with safety requirements is one of the most important conditions for a sustainable development of tourism, which is controlled by the conclusion and ratification of international agreements, and provided by law enforcement bodies.
Thomas Laquer believes that as the terrorism is a historical phenomenon with multiple forms and manifestations, it should be determined as “the use of violence by a group for political purposes, usually directed against the government, but sometimes against another group, class, race or political party. A more specific definition is doomed to failure due to the fact that there are many different «terrorisms» [3].
Thus, global terrorist attacks lead to actual stop of providing of all kinds of tourist services, and national terrorist attacks largely influence the decrease of tourist flow to the country where they occurred, and cause enormous damage to the economy. On the contrary, regional terrorist attacks have less impact on travel flows to the country (areas) where they occurred, but their consequences are considerable for this area. As for local terrorist attacks, they are characterized mainly by minor impact on key indicators, but their effects cause a certain decline in the provision of travel services and lead to forced migration.
When analyzing the reasons for the attention of terrorist groups to the tourism industry, we can distinguish some main reasons among them. In our opinion, the main reason is insufficient attention to the organization of safety measures at tourist sites. We should also mention the second reason – the commitment of terrorist attacks in the most popular tourist centers is one of the most effective means of bringing terrorists’ requirements to the media and therefore to the society. Another reason is the economic and financial aspects: in many countries, tourism is the largest, and sometimes the main source of budget revenues, therefore committing of terrorist attacks can lead to destabilization of the economy of this country, causing a wide range of leverages to achieve the objectives of a terrorist organization.
It is primarily about Tunisia, Egypt and Turkey – the most attractive countries for Ukrainian tourists, where the social and political situation, and as a consequence – the dangerous instability give rise to concern [4; 5].
Thus, on June 26, 2015, there was a terrorist attack in the hotel territory of the recreational area of Sousse city – El Kantaoui. An armed terrorist broke in the hotel territory from the beach side and shot all hotel guests who fell his way. 39 people were killed, 39 were wounded [6].
A significant risk in terms of global terrorist threats is traveling by plane. In this context, we should mention the passenger aircraft Boeing 777 of Malaysia Airlines, flying from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur, which was downed on July 17, 2014 in the territory of Donetsk Region. There were 298 people on board, all of them died [7].
These and other factors create conditions to enhance the interest of terrorist groups to the tourism industry. Thus, the tourism security system should be a set of measures aimed at involving law enforcement, specialized agencies and private security firms to guard the safety of transport, accommodation and recreation facilities, tourist centers, etc. A necessary condition for the development of the industry is the introduction of a large-scale information campaign on the benefits of domestic tourist centers with mandatory coverage in the media information about the implementation of security measures. In order to ensure the overall functioning of combating crime, including terrorism related combating, we should not forget about the legal education of civil society.
1. Sokol T.G. Fundamentals of tourist activities: [textbook] / T.G. Sokol – K.: Gramota, 2006. – 264 p.
2. Maria Brás e Victor Rodrigues. Influence of crimes on the choice of a travel destination / Maria Brás e Victor Rodrigues [Electronic source]. – Access mode: https://goo.gl/IuMA8x
3. Eunice Castro Seixas. Terrorisms: Conceptual study/ Eunice Castro Seixas [Electronic source]. – Access mode: https://goo.gl/5JQOO5
4. Bombs with a warning were found in the airport of Cairo [Electronic source]. – Access mode: https://goo.gl/zxmWgA
5. Terrorism vs tourism [Electronic source]. – Access mode: http://ptel.cz/2015/04/terrorizm-vs-turizm/
6. Terrorist attack in Sousse [Electronic source]. – Access mode: https://goo.gl/bw0P4A
7. Fatal crash of Boeing-777 above the Donbas: the OSCE states about the «signs of the terrorists’ guilt» [Electronic source]. – Access mode: http://fakty.ictv.ua/ua/index/read-news/id/1521474/ {jcomments lock}

English French German Polish Romanian Russian Ukrainian
Національний розвиток держави і права повинен ґрунтуватися, у першу чергу, на:
На Вашу думку чи забезпечують реалізацію принципу верховенства права законодавчі реформи 2020 року?
Система Orphus
Повну відповідальність за зміст опублікованих тез доповідей несуть автори, рецензенти та структурні підрозділи вищих навчальних закладів та наукових установ, які рекомендували їх до друку.

Лічильники і логотипи

Актуальна Юриспруденція