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Міжнародна науково-практична конференція 15.04.21 - СЕКЦІЯ №2
Protection of human rights is one of the most acute problems of Ukrainian reality. The constitutional desire to develop and strengthen a democratic state cannot be realized without the approval of inalienable human rights and freedoms in public consciousness and social practice, and the normative consolidation of their guarantees.
The state is obliged to be active in ensuring human rights, in creating material, organizational, social, political, and other conditions for a person to fully exercise his rights and freedoms through the legal mechanism of their protection.
The concept of «legal regulation mechanism» or «legal mechanism» is used in legal science in two different meanings in terms of content. They are often used synonymously with the concept of «legal regulation».
There is a well-developed and documented human rights system in the world. Their main feature is that they are provided to all people from birth. The main documents reflecting modern international human rights standards are:
• Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948);
• European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950);
• European Social Charter (1961);
• International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966);
• Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (1975);
• Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989).
However, human rights are often violated. This happens when the norms set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other listed documents are not respected or when someone (other people or states) acts against them. The most shameful manifestations of human rights violations are discrimination and persecution on various grounds, such as nationality or political views, human trafficking and slavery, torture, violation of the rules of war and the use of civilians as a «shield» for the military.
The state is the main guarantor of the observance of human and civil rights and freedoms. However, the state does not always fulfill all its obligations to its citizens. To restore justice, the developers of human rights instruments have provided mechanisms for the protection of human rights.
Protection of human rights can take place both at the national level, that is, within a separate state, and at the international level, when the state is not able to independently protect the rights of its citizens. The task of protecting human rights in the state is primarily entrusted to law enforcement agencies and the judiciary. The country's legislation should be based on the high value of a person and take into account the international legal framework of human rights.
At the international level, the protection of human rights is primarily concerned with the UN; in addition, within the framework of other international organizations there are structural units that monitor the observance of human rights in the world. In their activities, they are also guided by the documents listed at the beginning. In the event of non-observance of human rights, they can both provide assistance to victims and apply sanctions to violators.
The UN and other international legal institutions have developed a number of documents regulating the protection of human rights in the world. Ukraine as a UN member state is guided by them in the development of its legislation, or regulatory support. Legal support is an integral part of the national mechanism for the protection of human rights, as well as informational, scientific and methodological, and the so on and so forth. The basis for this provision is the Constitution of Ukraine, which proclaims that the main value of the state is a person. On the basis of the current legislation in Ukraine there are institutions whose task is to ensure the observance of human rights in the country:
• General Prosecutor's Office of Ukraine;
• Committee of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on Human Rights, National Minorities and Interethnic Relations;
• Other committees of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on activities to ensure and protect human rights (legislative support for law enforcement).
If we talk about Europe, then there are three international systems for the protection of human rights: 
1) The UN system is called the «Charter of Human Rights» because it ratified the 1966 International Covenant - Universal Declaration of Nations. 
2) The Security and Moral System of the Conference in Europe, based on the Final Act signed in 1975 in Helsinki (Finland).
3) European Convention on the System of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in Europe along with Additional Protocols.
For the sake of Europe, the system has special powers on human rights within it, which are monitored by the European People's Commission and the European Court of Human Rights.
Other continents have their own systems and human rights. In 1969, the International Convention on Human Rights was launched in 11 states of Latin America. 
In 1981, the African authorities adopted the Charter of the People and Human Rights; people need to be aware of their human rights to food.
In addition to government agencies, national and international intergovernmental organizations, there are many non-governmental organizations around the world dedicated to the protection of human rights. One of the largest international organizations operating in Ukraine, Amnesty International was founded in 1961 to expose and promote violations of human rights, human dignity and pressure on governments and society, protect victims and end human rights violations. It also runs information and awareness campaigns to educate the public about human rights and the importance of respecting them. A special direction of the organization's activities in Ukraine is the fight against torture in law enforcement agencies.
International Center for Women's Rights «La Strada-Ukraine» has been operating since 1997. Its main goals are the prevention of human trafficking, especially women and children, the elimination of all forms of discrimination and violence in society, as well as the promotion of the protection of human rights, gender equality and the rights of the child. Overall, La Strada: Prevention of Women Trafficking in Central and Eastern Europe was initiated in 1995 by NGOs in the Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic.
There are many organizations dedicated to protecting children's rights. The ECPAT Human Rights NGO Network (ESRAT) headquartered in Bangkok, Thailand, fights child sexual abuse. Ukraine has been a member of the organization since 2004 and unites 104 organizations from 93 countries of the world.
Human rights mechanisms are designed to prevent violations of human rights and restore justice in the event of violations of these rights. It is the duty of every state to protect the rights of its citizens. 
    
Bibliography:
1. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights // Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. - M.: Rus., Legal Fund: Law, 1995.
2. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. - K.: Ukr., Legal Fund: Law, 1995.
3. Brownli Ya. «International Law». - M., 1977. 
4. Janice M., Kay R., Bradley A. «European human rights law: sources and practice». Trans. from English - M.: Artek, 1997.
5. Entin M.L. International guarantees of human rights. Practice for Europe. M., Progress., 1992 
6. Entin M.L. «International judicial institutions». - M., International Relations, 1984. 
7. Kozhevnikov F.I. «Course of International Law in 6 Volumes». – M.: Nauka, 1967. (Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Institute of State and Law), Volume 3-5;
8. Kolosov Yu.M., Kuznetsov V.I. «International law». - M., 1995. 
9. Mazov V.A. «Principles of Helsinki and International Law». – M.: Nauka, 1967.
10. Mullerson R.A. «Human Rights: Ideas, Norms, Reality». - M.: Legal Literature, 1991. 
11. Nelip M.I., Merezhko A.A. "Forced protection of human rights: issues of legitimacy in modern international law". - K.: Science Opinion, 1999. 
12. Pljushka A.D. «International Charter of Human Rights» // Collection of documents. - K.: Scientific opinion, 1991.
13. Human rights in UN documents // Amsterdam. - K.: Ukr. - American Bureau of Human Rights,, 1997.
14. Human rights in the documents of the Council of Europe // Amsterdam. - K.: Ukr. - American Bureau of Human Rights, 1996.
 
 

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